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- Eero Hyvönen: How to Create a National Cross-domain Ontology and Linked Data Infrastructure and Use It on the Semantic Web
- Eero Hyvönen, Esko Ikkala, Mikko Koho, Jouni Tuominen, Toby Burrows, Lynn Ransom, and Hanno Wijsman: Mapping Manuscript Migrations on the Semantic Web: A Semantic Portal and Linked Open Data Service for Premodern Manuscript Research
- Petri Leskinen and Eero Hyvönen: Reconciling and Using Historical Person Registers as Linked Open Data in the AcademySampo Knowledge Graph
- Eero Hyvönen, Heikki Rantala, Esko Ikkala, Mikko Koho, Jouni Tuominen, Babatunde Anafi, Suzie Thomas, Anna Wessman, Eljas Oksanen, Ville Rohiola, Jutta Kuitunen and Minna Ryyppö: Citizen Science Archaeological Finds on the Semantic Web: The FindSampo Framework
Sampo Model and Series of Semantic Portals
This page presents the ”Sampo” model and series of Linked Open Data services and semantic portals (Hyvönen, 2021), based on six principles:
- Support collaborative data creation and publishing.
- Use a shared open ontology infrastructure.
- Support data analysis and knowledge discovery in addition to data exploration.
- Provide multiple perspectives to the same data.
- Standardize portal usage by a simple filter-analyze two-step cycle.
- Make clear distinction between the Linked Open Data service and the user interface (UI).
Sampo portal data services are provided by the Linked Data Finland platform. For the user interfaces, the Sampo-UI framework (Ikkala et al., 2021) has been used in recent Sampos online.
The Sampo portals listed below in the table have had millions of end users on the Web in total, suggesting feasibility and sustainability of the approach that has evolved gradually since 2002. The video below overvies the general idea on using Artificial Intelligence in Digital Humanities related to our work on the Sampo systems.
The Sampo model with the underlying Linked Open Data infrastructure is explained in the video below (this video includes the former one as a part in the beginning):
Paradigm Shift of Semantic Portals
The Sampo model and portals aim at making a paradigm change in publishing and using cultural heritage content on the Web (Hyvönen, 2020). The contents are not only published as Linked Data but also integrated seamlessly with intelligent tools for data analysis. In our vision, AI should not only help the user in solving research problems, but also in finding new ones using Creative AI methods. We also focus on white box Explainable AI, which is important in humanities research.
In Douglas Adam’s novel “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”, the computer was asked “What is the meaning of life”. The answer “42” may be right, but a researcher in humanities would also like to know “why”.
Sampo Portal Series
The Sampo series of semantic portals is listed below.
Table: Published and forth-coming semantic portals that have been implemented using the Sampo model (information updated 04/2021)
|Portal||URL||Publication year||Domain||Unique users||Knowledge graph(s) triple count or size||Faceted search engine||User interface framework||Primary data owner|
|1. MuseumFinland||museosuomi.fi||2004||Museum collections||39 000||210 986||OntoViews||Apache Cocoon||National Museum of Finland|
|2. CultureSampo||kulttuurisampo.fi||2008||GLAM collections||107 000||11 400 000||Custom||Tapestry||Over 20 Finnish Memory Organizations|
|3. HealthFinland||-||2008||Health information||Unknown||6 000 documents||Custom||Tapestry||Finnish institute for health and welfare|
|4. TravelSampo||-||2011||Cultural travel||Unknown||17 000 000 places||Custom||Drupal and jQuery||Several Finnish Memory Organizations|
|5. WarSampo||sotasampo.fi/en||2015||Military history||857 000||14 322 426||SPARQL Faceter||AngularJS||National Archives of Finland|
|6. BiographySampo||biografiasampo.fi||2018||Biographies||52 000||5 373 496||SPARQL Faceter||AngularJS||Finnish Literature Society|
|7. NameSampo||nimisampo.fi/en||2019||Place names||39 000||241 068 456||Sampo-UI||Institute for the Languages of Finland|
|8. WarVictimSampo 1914–1922||sotasurmat.narc.fi/en||2019||Military history||29 000||9 815 265||Sampo-UI||National Archives of Finland|
|9. Mapping Manuscript Migrations||mappingmanuscriptmigrations.org||2020||Pre-modern manuscripts||7 800||22 472 633||Sampo-UI||Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies, Bodleian Libraries, and Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes|
|10. AcademySampo||akatemiasampo.fi/en||2021||Finnish Academic People 1640–1899||2200||6 552 629||Sampo-UI||University of Helsinki, Finland|
|11. FindSampo||findsampo.fi||2021||Archaeology||TBA||1 008 720||Sampo-UI||Finnish Heritage Agency|
|12. LawSampo||TBA||TBA||Law||TBA||TBA||Sampo-UI||Ministry of Justice, Finland|
|13. LetterSampo||TBA||TBA||Early Modern Letters 1500-1800 (Republic of Letters)||TBA||TBA||Sampo-UI||University of Oxford and archives in several countries|
|14. ParliamentSampo||TBA||TBA||Parliamentary data||TBA||TBA||Sampo-UI||Parliament of Finland|
|15. HistorySampo||TBA||TBA||Historical events||TBA||TBA||Sampo-UI||Agricola Network of Historians|
|16. BookSampo||kirjasampo.fi||2011||Finnish fiction literature||1 211 640 in 2019||8 313 263||None||Drupal||Finnish public library consortium|
|Norske stadnamn||toponymi.spraksamlingane.no||2019||Place names||Unknown||217 353 538||Sampo-UI||Norwegian Language Collections|
|Staff portal||-||2019||Human resources||Unknown||Unknown||Sampo-UI||Lingsoft Ltd.|
LetterSampo- Republic of Letters 1500-1800 on the Semantic Web
AcademySampo - Finnish Academic People 1640-1899
BiographySampo - Artificial Intelligence Reading Biographies for the Semantic Web
WarSampo - World War II on the Semantic Web
ParliamentSampo - Parliament of Finland on the Semantic Web
LawSampo - Finnish Legislation and Case Law on the Semantic Web
Building a National Level Linked Open Data Infrastructure for Digital Humanities in Finland
Professor Eero Hyvönen
Aalto University and University of Helsinki (HELDIG)
first.last [ at ] aalto.fi
Publications about the Sampo Model and Sampo Series as a Whole
Publications of each particular Sampo portal are available on their respective homepages listed in the above table.