» back to normal layout

Sampo Model, Data Services, and Series of Semantic Portals

This page presents the ”Sampo” model, series of Linked Open Data services, and semantic portals (Hyvönen, 2022), based on six principles:

  1. Support collaborative data creation and publishing.
  2. Use a shared open ontology infrastructure.
  3. Support data analysis and knowledge discovery in addition to data exploration.
  4. Provide multiple perspectives to the same data.
  5. Standardize portal usage by a simple filter-analyze two-step cycle.
  6. Make clear distinction between the Linked Open Data service and the user interface (UI).

Sampo portal data services are provided by the Linked Data Finland platform. For the user interfaces, the Sampo-UI framework has been used since 2019.

The Sampo portals listed below in the table have had millions of end users on the Web in total, suggesting feasibility and sustainability of the approach that has evolved gradually since 2002. The video below overvies the general idea on using Artificial Intelligence in Digital Humanities related to our work on the Sampo systems.

The Sampo model with the underlying Linked Open Data infrastructure in Finland (Hyvönen, 2022) are explained in the keynote presentation at the DCMI 2021 conference below:

Paradigm Shift in Publishing Cultural Heritage Contents

The Sampo model, data services, and portals aim at making a paradigm change in publishing and using Cultural Heritage content on the Web (Hyvönen, 2020). The contents are not only published as Linked Data but also integrated seamlessly with intelligent tools for data analysis. In our vision, AI should not only help the user in solving research problems, but also in finding new ones using Creative AI methods. We also focus on white box Explainable AI, which is important in humanities research. In Douglas Adam’s novel “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”, the computer was asked “What is the meaning of life”. The answer “42” may be right, but a researcher in humanities would also like to know “why”.

Sampo Series

The Sampo series of data services and semantic portals is listed below.

Table: Published and forth-coming semantic portals that have been implemented using the Sampo model (information updated 01/2023)

Portal project homepage Public URL Publication year Domain Unique users Knowledge graph(s) triple count or size Faceted search engine User interface framework Primary data owner
Internal portals
1. MuseumFinland museosuomi.fi 2004 Museum collections 39 000 210 986 OntoViews Apache Cocoon National Museum of Finland
2. CultureSampo kulttuurisampo.fi 2008 GLAM collections 107 000 11 400 000 Custom Tapestry Over 20 Finnish Memory Organizations
3. HealthFinland - 2008 Health information Unknown 6 000 documents Custom Tapestry Finnish institute for health and welfare
4. TravelSampo - 2011 Cultural travel Unknown 17 000 000 places Custom Drupal and jQuery Several Finnish Memory Organizations
5. WarSampo sotasampo.fi/en 2015 Military history over 1 000 000 14 322 426 SPARQL Faceter AngularJS National Archives of Finland
6. Norssi alumni on the Semantic Web Norssit.fi 2017 Historical person registries ? 470 000 SPARQL Faceter AngularJS Vanhat Norssit ry
7. U. S. Congress Prosopographer Demonstrator 2017 Historical person registries ? 828 000 SPARQL Faceter AngularJS https://github.com/unitedstates/congress-legislators
8. BiographySampo biografiasampo.fi 2018 Biographies 52 000 5 373 496 SPARQL Faceter AngularJS Finnish Literature Society
9. NameSampo nimisampo.fi/en 2019 Place names 39 000 241 068 456 Sampo-UI Institute for the Languages of Finland
10. WarVictimSampo 1914–1922 sotasurmat.narc.fi/en 2019 Military history 29 000 9 815 265 Sampo-UI National Archives of Finland
11. Mapping Manuscript Migrations mapping­manuscript­migrations.org 2020 Pre-modern manuscripts 7 800 22 472 633 Sampo-UI Schoenberg Institute for Manuscript Studies, Bodleian Libraries, and Institut de recherche et d’histoire des textes
12. AcademySampo akatemiasampo.fi/en 2021 Finnish Academic People 1640–1899 8200 6 552 629 Sampo-UI University of Helsinki, Finland
13. FindSampo findsampo.fi 2021 Archaeology 3200 1 008 720 Sampo-UI Finnish Heritage Agency
14. WarMemoirSampo sotamuistot.arkisto.fi 2021 Video memoirs of WW2 veterans 2000 TBA Sampo-UI Tammenlehvän Perinnesäätiö ry
15. LetterSampo projects LetterSampo Demonstrator TBA Early Modern Letters 1500-1800 (Republic of Letters) TBA 2022 Sampo-UI Huygens Institute, correspSearch, University of Oxford, archives in several countries
16. ParliamentSampo parlamenttisampo.fi 2023 Parliamentary data TBA TBA Sampo-UI Parliament of Finland
17. LawSampo lakisampo.fi 2023 Legislation and case law TBA TBA Sampo-UI Ministry of Justice, Finland
18. CoinSampo TBA TBA Archeaology TBA TBA Sampo-UI Fínnish Heritage Agency, British Museum (PAS), Fitzwilliam Museum
19. HistorySampo TBA TBA Historical events TBA TBA Sampo-UI Agricola Network of Historians
20. OperaSampo TBA TBA Musical performances TBA TBA Sampo-UI University of Art
21. BookSampo, using Sampo UI TBA 2022 Finnish fiction literature etc. TBA TBA Sampo-UI Finnish public library consortium Kirjastiot.fi
22. ConfermentSampo TBA TBA University traditions TBA TBA Sampo-UI University of Helsinki
23. ArtSampo TBA TBA Art collections TBA TBA Sampo-UI National Gallery of Finland
External portals
1. BookSampo kirjasampo.fi 2011 Finnish fiction literature 1.1 million annual users (2021) 8 700 000 None Drupal Finnish public library consortium
2. Norske stadnamn 2. toponymi.­spraksam­lingane.no 2019 Place names Unknown 217 353 538 Sampo-UI Norwegian Language Collections
3. Staff portal - 2019 Human resources Unknown Unknown Sampo-UI Lingsoft Ltd.
4. KAVI RTVA portal TBA 2023 National audiovisual archives Unknown Very large Sampo-UI Sofia Digital Ltd

Related videos

LetterSampo- Republic of Letters 1500-1800 on the Semantic Web

LetterSampo from SeCo Research Group on Vimeo.

AcademySampo - Finnish Academic People 1640-1899

BiographySampo - Artificial Intelligence Reading Biographies for the Semantic Web

BiographySampo - Finnish Biographies on the Semantic Web from SeCo Research Group on Vimeo.

WarSampo - World War II on the Semantic Web

WarSampo: Finnish World War II on the Semantic Web from SeCo Research Group on Vimeo.

ParliamentSampo - Parliament of Finland on the Semantic Web

LawSampo - Finnish Legislation and Case Law on the Semantic Web

WarMemoirSampo - Video Interviews of veterans of the Second World War in Finland

Building a National Level Linked Open Data Infrastructure for Digital Humanities in Finland

Building a National Level Linked Open Data Infrastructure for Digital Humanities in Finland from Eero_Hyvonen on Vimeo.

The keynote presentation video of the DCMI 2021 confence below gives an overview of our work on developing a national Semantic Web infrastructure in Finland and its applications.

Contact

Professor Eero Hyvönen
Aalto University and University of Helsinki (HELDIG)
first.last [ at ] aalto.fi

Publications about the Sampo Model and Sampo Series as a Whole

Publications of each particular Sampo portal are available on their respective homepages listed in the above table.

2023

Eljas Oksanen, Frida Ehrnsten, Heikki Rantala and Eero Hyvönen: Semantic Solutions for Democratising Archaeological and Numismatic Data Analysis. ACM Journal of Computing and Cultural Heritage, 2023. Accepted, forth-coming. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen: Parlamenttisampo avaa eduskunnan miljoona puhetta ja kansanedustajien verkostot kaikkien tutkittaviksi. Tieteessä tapahtuu, vol. 41, no. 1, Tieteellisten seurain valtuuskunta (TSV), 2023. bib pdf link
Frida Ehrnsten, Eljas Oksanen, Heikki Rantala and Eero Hyvönen: DigiNUMA ja Rahasampo – uusi digitaalinen palvelu rahalöydöistä kiinnostuneille. Numismaattinen aikakauslehti, 2023. In press. bib
Heikki Rantala, Eero Hyvönen and Petri Leskinen: Finding relations between entities in a knowledge graph: Case artists of the Getty Union List of Artist Names (ULAN). 2023. Submitted for review. bib pdf
Mehwish Alam, Victor de Boer, Enrico Daga, Marieke van Erp, Eero Hyvönen and Albert Meroño-Peñuela: Editorial of Special Issue on Cultural Heritage and Semantic Web. Semantic Web - Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 155-158, IOS Press, 2023. bib link
Heikki Rantala, Eero Hyvönen and Petri Leskinen: Finding and explaining relations in a biographical knowledge graph based on life events: Case BiographySampo. ESWC 2023 Workshops and tutorials joint proceedings, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2023. Forth-coming. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen, Petri Leskinen and Jouni Tuominen: A Data-driven Approach to Create an Ontology of Parliamentary Work: Case Parliament of Finland on the Semantic Web. Proceedings of SWODCH 2023. Semantic Web and Ontology Design for Cultural Heritage. Co-located with the 22nd International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2023) in Athens, Greece, September, 2023. Accepted, forth-coming. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen: Creating and Using Biographical Dictionaries for Digital Humanities Based on Linked Data: A Survey of Web Services in Use in Finland. Biographical Data in a Digital World 2022 (BD 2022), Tokyo, Proceedings, accepted, August, 2023. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen, Laura Sinikallio, Petri Leskinen, Senka Drobac, Rafael Leal, Matti La Mela, Jouni Tuominen, Henna Poikkimäki and Heikki Rantala: Plenary Speeches of the Parliament of Finland as Linked Open Data and Data Services. Joint Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Knowledge Graph Generation From Text and the First International BiKE Challenge co-located with 20th Extended Semantic Conference (ESWC 2023), pp. 1-20, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 3447, August, 2023. bib pdf link
Petri Leskinen and Eero Hyvönen: Biographical and Prosopographical Analyses of Finnish Academic People 1640–1899 Based on Linked Open Data. Biographical Data in a Digital World 2022 (BD 2022), Tokyo, Proceedings, accepted, August, 2023. Forth-coming. bib pdf
Heikki Rantala, Annastiina Ahola, Esko Ikkala and Eero Hyvönen: How to create easily a data analytic semantic portal on top of a SPARQL endpoint: introducing the configurable Sampo-UI framework. July, 2023. Submitted for evaluation. bib pdf
Annastiina Ahola, Telma Peura and Eero Hyvönen: Interfacing the BookSampo Knowledge Graph of Finnish Literature for Data Analyses in Digital Humanities. DARIAH Annual Event 2023, poster paper, DARIAH-EU, June, 2023. bib link
Annastiina Ahola, Eero Hyvönen and Heikki Rantala: A User Interface Model for Digital Humanities Research: Case BookSampo – Finnish Fiction Literature on the Semantic Web. Proceedings of ESWC 2023, poster and demo papers, Springer-Verlag, June, 2023. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen, Petri Leskinen and Heikki Rantala: Integrating Faceted Search with Data Analytic Tools in the User Interface of ParliamentSampo - Parliament of Finland on the Semantic Web. Proceedings of ESWC 2023, poster and demo papers, Sringer-Verlag, June, 2023. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen: How to Create a National Cross-domain Ontology and Linked Data Infrastructure and Use It on the Semantic Web. Programming and Data Infrastructure in Digital Humanities, Book of Abstracts, pp. 7, High Performance Computing Centre, University of Évora, Portugal, March, 2023. bib link
Eero Hyvönen, Petri Leskinen, Laura Sinikallio, Senka Drobac, Rafael Leal, Matti La Mela, Jouni Tuominen, Henna Poikkimäki and Heikki Rantala: ParliamentSampo Infrastructure for Publishing the Plenary Speeches and Networks of Politicians of the Parliament of Finland as Open Data Services. Aalto University, Dept. of Computer Science, February, 2023. Paper published at the publication event of the ParliamentSampo data service and portal. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen: Digital Humanities on the Semantic Web: Sampo Model and Portal Series. Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 729-744, IOS Press, 2023. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen: How to Create a National Cross-domain Ontology and Linked Data Infrastructure and Use It on the Semantic Web. Semantic Web - Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, IOS Press, 2023. Forth-coming. bib pdf

2022

Eljas Oksanen, Heikki Rantala, Jouni Tuominen, Michael Lewis, David Wigg-Wolf, Frida Ehrnsten and Eero Hyvönen: Digital Humanities Solutions for Pan-European Numismatic and Archaeological Heritage Based on Linked Open Data. DHNB 2022 The 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference, pp. 352-360, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 3232, 2022. bib pdf link
Senka Drobac, Laura Sinikallio and Eero Hyvönen: An OCR Pipeline for Transforming Parliamentary Debates into Linked Data: Case ParliamentSampo – Parliament of Finland on the Semantic Web. CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2022. Paper under peer review. bib pdf
Telma Peura, Petri Leskinen and Eero Hyvönen: What Linked Data Can Tell about Geographical Trends in Finnish Fiction Literature - Using the BookSampo Knowledge Graph in Digital Humanities. 2022. Abstract under peer review. bib
Arttu Oksanen, Eero Hyvönen, Minna Tamper, Jouni Tuominen, Henna Ylimaa, Katja Löytynoja, Matti Kokkonen and Aki Hietanen: A Tool for Pseudonymization of Textual Documents for Digital Humanities Research and Publication. AI4LEGAL-KGSUM 2022: Artificial Intelligence Technologies for Legal Documents and Knowledge Graph Summarization 2022, vol. 3257, pp. 12-21, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, August, 2022. bib pdf link
Henna Poikkimäki, Petri Leskinen, Minna Tamper and Eero Hyvönen: Analyses of Networks of Politicians Based on Linked Data: Case ParliamentSampo - Parliament of Finland on the Semantic Web. New Trends in Database and Information Systems, pp. 585-592, Springer International Publishing, August, 2022. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen, Esko Ikkala, Mikko Koho, and Rafael Leal, Heikki Rantala and Minna Tamper: How to Search and Contextualize Scenes inside Videos for Enriched Watching Experience: Case Stories of the Second World War Veterans. The Semantic Web: ESWC 2022 Satellite Events, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 13384, pp. 163-167, Springer, July, 2022. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen, Laura Sinikallio, Petri Leskinen, Matti La Mela, Jouni Tuominen, Kimmo Elo, Senka Drobac, Mikko Koho, Esko Ikkala, Minna Tamper, Rafael Leal and Joonas Kesäniemi: Linked Data Approach for Studying Parliamentary Speeches and Networks of Politicians in Finland 1907-2021 (long paper). Digital Humanities 2022, Conference Abstracts, July 25-29, 2022 Online, Tokyo. Japan, University of Tokyo, pp. 254-257, ADHO, July, 2022. bib link
Mikko Koho, Rafael Leal, Esko Ikkala, Minna Tamper, Heikki Rantala and Eero Hyvönen: Building Lightweight Ontologies for Faceted Search with Named Entity Recognition: Case WarMemoirSampo. Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Knowledge Graph Generation From Text and the 1st International Workshop on Modular Knowledge co-located with 19th Extended Semantic Conference (ESWC 2022) (Sanju Tiwari, Nandana Mihindukulasooriya, Francesco Osborne, Dimitris Kontokostas, Jennifer D’Souza and Mayank Kejriwal (eds.)), vol. 3184, pp. 19-35, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, May, 2022. International Knowledge Graph Generation From Text (TEXT2KG). bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen, Laura Sinikallio, Petri Leskinen, Matti La Mela, Jouni Tuominen, Kimmo Elo, Senka Drobac, Mikko Koho, Esko Ikkala, Minna Tamper, Rafael Leal and Joonas Kesäniemi: Finnish Parliament on the Semantic Web: Using ParliamentSampo Data Service and Semantic Portal for Studying Political Culture and Language. Digital Parliamentary data in Action (DiPaDA 2022), Workshop at the 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference, long paper, pp. 69-85, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 3133, May, 2022. bib pdf link
Jouni Tuominen, Mikko Koho, Ilona Pikkanen, Senka Drobac, Johanna Enqvist, Eero Hyvönen, Matti La Mela, Petri Leskinen, Hanna-Leena Paloposki and Heikki Rantala: Constellations of Correspondence: a Linked Data Service and Portal for Studying Large and Small Networks of Epistolary Exchange in the Grand Duchy of Finland. DHNB 2022 The 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference, pp. 415-423, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 3232, March, 2022. bib pdf link
Petri Leskinen, Heikki Rantala and Eero Hyvönen: Analyzing the Lives of Finnish Academic People 1640–1899 in Nordic and Baltic Countries: AcademySampo Data Service and Portal. DHNB 2022 The 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, long papers, Vol. 3232, March, 2022. bib pdf link
Mikko Koho, Heikki Rantala and Eero Hyvönen: Digital Humanities and Military History: Analyzing Casualties of the WarSampo Knowledge Graph. DHNB 2022 The 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference (Karl Berglund, Matti La Mela and Inge Zwart (eds.)), vol. 3232, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Uppsala, Sweden, March, 2022. bib pdf link
Arttu Oksanen, Minna Tamper, Jouni Tuominen, Aki Hietanen and Eero Hyvönen: A Tool for Pseudonymization of Textual Documents for Digital Humanities Research and Publication. 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference, poster paper, book of abstracts, pp. 107-108, March, 2022. bib pdf
Rafael Leal, Heikki Rantala, Mikko Koho, Esko Ikkala, Markus Merenmies and Eero Hyvönen: WarMemoirSampo: A Semantic Portal for War Veteran Interview Videos. DHNB 2022 The 6th Digital Humanities in Nordic and Baltic Countries Conference, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, long papers, Vol. 3232, March, 2022. bib pdf link
Esko Ikkala, Eero Hyvönen, Heikki Rantala and Mikko Koho: Sampo-UI: A Full Stack JavaScript Framework for Developing Semantic Portal User Interfaces. Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 69-84, January, 2022. Online version published in 2021, print version in 2022. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen, Annastiina Ahola and Esko Ikkala: BookSampo Fiction Literature Knowledge Graph Revisited: Building a Faceted Search Interface with Seamlessly Integrated Data-analytic Tools. Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries (TDPL 2022), Accelerating Innovations Track, Padova, Italy, Springer, 2022. Accepted. bib pdf

2021

Eero Hyvönen, Esko Ikkala, Mikko Koho, Jouni Tuominen, Toby Burrows, Lynn Ransom and Hanno Wijsman: Mapping Manuscript Migrations on the Semantic Web: A Semantic Portal and Linked Open Data Service for Premodern Manuscript Research. The Semantic Web - ISWC 2021, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 12922, pp. 615-630, Springer, 2021. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen, Laura Sinikallio, Petri Leskinen, Senka Drobac, Jouni Tuominen, Kimmo Elo, Matti La Mela, Mikko Koho, Esko Ikkala, Minna Tamper, Rafael Leal and Joonas Kesäniemi: Parlamenttisampo: eduskunnan aineistojen linkitetyn avoimen datan palvelu ja sen käyttömahdollisuudet. Informaatiotutkimus, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 216-244, November, 2021. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen, Petri Leskinen, Minna Tamper, Heikki Rantala, Esko Ikkala, Jouni Tuominen and Kirsi Keravuori: Biografiasampo yhdistää ja rikastaa suomalaiset elämäkerrat linkitettynä datana semanttisessa webissä (Biographysampo links and enriches Finnish biographies as linked data on the Semantic Web. Informaatiotutkimus, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 346-368, November, 2021. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen: Sammon taontaa semanttisessa webissä (Forging Sampos on the Semantic Web). Tekniikan Waiheita, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 87-105, Tekniikan Historian Seura ry, July, 2021. bib pdf link

2020

Eero Hyvönen: Semantic Sampo Portals for Digital Humanities Based on a National Linked Open Data Infrastructure. 2020. White paper, Aalto University, Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo). bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen: Sampo Model and Semantic Portals for Digital Humanities on the Semantic Web. DHN 2020 Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries. Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 5th Conference, pp. 373-378, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 2612, Riga, Latvia, October, 2020. bib pdf link
Chris A. Sula, Kalani Craig, Michelle Dalmu, Alex Humphreys, Eero Hyvönen, Hannah L. Jacobs, Humphrey Keah, Joseph Kiplangat, Thea Lindquist, Nicholas Weber, Scott B. Weingart: Infrastructures of Digital Humanities. 83rd Association for Information Science and Technology (ASIS&T) Annual Meeting, proceedings, Association for Information Science and Technology, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA, October, 2020. bib pdf link
Eero Hyvönen: Tekoäly ja semanttinen web tarjoavat huikeat mahdollisuudet suurten aineistojen hallintaan. Kansallisarkiston strategia 2025, näkökulmia tulevaan (Jussi Nuorteva, Päivi Happonen (ed.)), pp. 20-21, Kansallisarkisto, Helsinki, May, 2020. bib link
/var/www/html/include/secoweb/utils.php; Wed, 04 Oct 2023 00:31:37 +0000