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FindSampo – Archaeological Finds on the Semantic Web

FindSampo – Archaeological Finds on the Semantic Web is system that aims to foster collecting, sharing, publishing, and studying archaeological finds discovered by the public. The framework includes a mobile find reporting system, a semantic portal for researchers, the public, and collection managers to use, and a Linked Open Data service for creating custom data analyses and for application developers.

The growing flow of uncovered archaeological material poses challenges to researchers and collections finds data managers. We must support finders with legislative and also archaeological information. Easy to use tools to report finds and provide structured metadata are needed. Leaving finds cataloguing to curators is increasingly unfeasible given the increase in metal detecting. To make use of new data, cultural heritage managers, researchers and the public need search and analysis tools. Since finds are connected to existing collections, we also address cross-collection data interoperability. The methods and Open Source tools developed are also applicable to other cultural heritage citizen science fields.

Figure: Landing page of the FindSampo portal demonstrator.

The key product of the project is a demonstrator, FindSampo, a semantic portal and Linked Open Data service based on the "Sampo" model and a member of the Sampo series of systems for Digital Humanities research and application. In addition a demonstratator FindSampo Reporter was developed, a mobile system for reporting finds easily immediately on the spot of the find.

An overview of the FindSampo system as a whole can be found in the publication (Hyvönen et el., 2021) below.

The FindSampo concept and system was developed as part of project "Finnish Archaeological Finds Recording Linked Open Database (SuALT)", a multidisciplinary project developing innovative solutions to respond to metal detecting and other non-professional encounters with archaeological material, applying semantic computing to “citizen science”. For more details about the SuALT project, see the SuALT homepage.


Thanks for collaborations to our colleagues at the University of Helsinki and Finnish Heritage Agency, the two other consortium partners in our project in addition to Aalto University. Our research is funded by the Academy of Finland.


  • Prof. Eero Hyvönen (PI), Aalto University and University of Helsinki (HELDIG)
  • MSc Esko Ikkala, Aalto University
  • MSc Heikki Rantala, Aalto University
  • Dr. Mikko Koho, Aalto University and University of Helsinki (HELDIG)
  • Dr. Jouni Tuominen, University of Helsinki (HELDIG) and Aalto University
  • Babatunde Anafi, Aalto University



Eero Hyvönen, Heikki Rantala, Esko Ikkala, Mikko Koho, Jouni Tuominen, Babatunde Anafi, Suzie Thomas, Anna Wessman, Eljas Oksanen, Ville Rohiola, Jutta Kuitunen and Minna Ryyppö: Citizen Science Archaeological Finds on the Semantic Web: The FindSampo Framework. Antiquity, A Review of World Archaeology, vol. 95, no. 382, pp. e24, Cambridge University Press, August, 2021. bib pdf link
Esko Ikkala, Eero Hyvönen, Heikki Rantala and Mikko Koho: Sampo-UI: A Full Stack JavaScript Framework for Developing Semantic Portal User Interfaces. Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, April, 2021. Accepted. bib pdf link
Babatunde Anafi: Representing and Using Temporal Linked Data in Semantic Cultural Heritage Portals. MSc Thesis (in English), University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, March, 2021. bib link


Eero Hyvönen: Semantic Sampo Portals for Digital Humanities Based on a National Linked Open Data Infrastructure. 2020. White paper, Aalto University, Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo). bib pdf
Babatunde Anafi, Mikko Koho and Eero Hyvönen: Temporal Visualization and Data Analysis of Archaeological Finds: Case FindSampo. Conference on Cultural Heritage and New Technologies (CHNT 25), Museum Stadt Archäologie Wien, Nov, 2020. Posters. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen: Sampo Model and Semantic Portals for Digital Humanities on the Semantic Web. DHN 2020 Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries. Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 5th Conference, pp. 373-378, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 2612, Riga, Latvia, October, 2020. bib pdf link
Pejam Hassanzadeh, Eero Hyvönen, Esko Ikkala, Jouni Tuominen, Suzie Thomas, Anna Wessman and Ville Rohiola: FindSampo Platform for Reporting and Studying Archaeological Finds Using Citizen Science. 3rd Workshop on Humanities in the Semantic Web (WHiSe 2020), pp. 33-40, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 2695, June, 2020. bib pdf link


Suzie Thomas, Anna Wessman, Esko Ikkala, Jouni Tuominen, Mikko Koho and Eero Hyvönen: (co-)Creating a Sustainable Platform for Finland’s Archaeological Chance Finds: The Story of SuALT. Digital Heritage and Archaeology in Practice (Ethan Watrall and Lynne Goldstein (eds.)), University Press of Florida, December, 2019. Accepted. bib
Pejam Hassanzadeh: FindSampo: A Citizen Science Platform for Archaeological Finds on the Semantic Web. MSc Thesis, Aalto University, School of Science, Finland, December, 2019. bib link
Anna Wessman, Suzie Thomas, Ville Rohiola, Mikko Koho, Esko Ikkala, Jouni Tuominen, Eero Hyvönen, Jutta Kuitunen, Helinä Parviainen, and Marianna Niukkanen: Citizen Science in Archaeology: Developing a Collaborative Web Service for Archaeological Finds in Finland. Transforming Heritage Practice in the 21st Century: Contributions from Community Archaeology (John Jameson and Sergiu Musteață (eds.)), pp. 337-352, Springer, July, 2019. bib pdf link
Anna Wessman, Suzie Thomas, Ville Rohiola, Jutta Kuitunen, Esko Ikkala, Jouni Tuominen, Mikko Koho and Eero Hyvönen: A Citizen Science Approach to Archaeology: Finnish Archaeological Finds Recording Linked Open Database (SuALT). DHN 2019 Digital Humanities in Nordic Countries. Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 4th Conference, pp. 469-478, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol-2364, Copenhagen, Denmark, March, 2019. bib pdf link


Suzie Thomas, Anna Wessman, Jouni Tuominen, Mikko Koho, Esko Ikkala, Eero Hyvönen, Ville Rohiola and Ulla Salmela: SuALT: Collaborative Research Infrastructure for Archaeological Finds and Public Engagement through Linked Open Data. Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference (DHN 2018), Book of Abstracts, Helsinki, Finland, March, 2018. bib pdf link
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