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Semantic Web 2.0 (FinnONTO 2.0), 2008-2010

This page describes a research direction and project of the Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo).

Project Description

Semantic Web 2.0 (FinnONTO 2.0) 2008-2010 is a national continuation project based on the results of the National Semantic Web Ontology Project in Finland (FinnONTO 2003-2007). The general goal of this large project is to combine benefits and synergy of Web 2.0 and semantic web technologies and demonstrate the results in various semantic web portals and applications.

More information about the project will be published on this page soon.

Partnering Organizations

The research is directed and is mostly carried out by the Semantic Computing Research Group (SeCo) at the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and the University of Helsinki. Also the University of Tampere is contributing to the work.

The consortium behind the project includes 39 public organizations and companies funding the research. The participants represent a wide area of functions of the society including museums, libraries, business, health organizations, government, media, and education.

Contact Person

Prof. Eero Hyvönen

Publications

2013

Eetu Mäkelä, Kaisa Hypén and Eero Hyvönen: Fiction Literature as Linked Open Data - the BookSampo Dataset. Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, 2013. bib pdf
The BookSampo dataset provides information as linked data on fiction literature published in Finland going back to the 15th century, along with rich descriptions of both their content and context. The dataset contains data on nearly 400,000 subjects, including literary works, authors, book covers, reviews, awards, images, and movies, over 3 million triples in total. The data has been applied as the basis of the BookSampo portal in public use in Finland, and is aligned with the cross-domain cultural heritage contents and ontologies of CultureSampo, another in-use semantic portal. The data has been used to answer complex questions, such as what topics should one write about, if one wants to get a literary award (based on statistics). The metadata was transformed into RDF from legacy library databases, then enriched manually by dozens of librarians in a Web 2.0 fashion in Finnish public libraries, and is constantly updated at a rate of some new 90,000 triples monthly.
Osma Suominen: Methods for Building Semantic Portals. Dissertation, Aalto University, School of Science, Espoo, September, 2013. bib link

2012

Eero Hyvönen: Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage Linked Data on the Semantic Web. Morgan & Claypool, Palo Alto, CA, USA, October, 2012. bib pdf link
Eetu Mäkelä, Kaisa Hypén and Eero Hyvönen: Improving Fiction Literature Access by Linked Open Data -Based Collaborative Knowledge Storage - the BookSampo Project. World Library and Information Congress: 78th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, Helsinki, IFLA, http://conference.ifla.org/ifla78, August, 2012. bib pdf
BookSampo is a joint project between the Finnish public libraries and semantic web researchers, to improve fiction literature search and recommendation. In the project, dozens of librarians around Finland have used a collaborative web-based metadata editor to input diverse knowledge about fiction literature into a shared database. Particularly, the project has sought to improve access by indexing not only bibliographical information about the books, but focusing on the content and context of the works. In order to do this, the database employs advanced techniques such as functional, content-centered indexing, ontological vocabularies and the networked data model of linked open data. To demonstrate the functionality this makes possible, the fiction literature portal http://www.kirjasampo.fi/ was created. This portal uses the knowledge created in the project to offer advanced semantic search and recommendation based on the database created. In addition, web services exposing direct access to the data have been used for example in culture hack events to answer more complex questions, such as where in Finland are the most crimes committed in fiction literature.
Thea Lindquist, Eero Hyvönen, Juha Törnroos, Eetu Mäkelä: Leveraging linked data to enhance subject access - A case study of the University of Colorado Boulder s World War I collection online. World Library and Information Congress: 78th IFLA General Conference and Assembly, Helsinki, IFLA, http://conference.ifla.org/ifla78, August, 2012. bib link
Academic users often find work with online primary sources both rewarding and challenging. Improving subject access in these sources is essential as digital collections propagate and work with primary sources becomes increasingly important in humanities curricula. A user needs assessment was conducted with humanities users at the University of Colorado Boulder to facilitate engagement with these sources. Two of the major user needs identified were improving findability and context, particularly for historical subjects. Linked Data can help meet these needs by linking related concepts in the sources using a specialized vocabulary, enriching them with outside resources, and enabling semantically rich services that empower users. This paper discusses a project the authors undertook to enhance subject access in CU’s WWI Collection Online by deep linking historical data on the civilian experience in occupied Belgium. This work is intended to lead to a richer understanding of forces shaping the WWI period.
Eero Hyvönen, Aleksi Lindblad and Eetu Mäkelä: TravelSampo System for Creating Mobile Audio Guide Tours Enriched with Linked Data. Proceedings of CIDOC 2012 - Enriching Cultural Heritage, Helsinki, Finland, CIDOC, http://www.cidoc2012.fi/en/cidoc2012/programme, June, 2012. bib pdf
TravelSampo [1] is a prototype system, by which museums are able to create interactively audio guide tours inside museums and outside in the open air. The system includes a web-based editor by which a curator can describe objects in an exhibition, or in the open air, using a set of shared ontologies published in the National Ontology Service ONKI (http://onki.fi/), and upload related audio descriptions, text, and images. Each exhibit object is given an identifier and a geo-location. When the end-user is near the object, either in a museum or in the open air, information related to the object can be given to her based on the object identifier or GPS location. A major novelty of TravelSampo lies in its ability to associate the object metadata automatically with millions of semantically related pieces of information available though the Linked Data cloud (http://linkedata.org/) and the CultureSampo system (http://www.kulttuurisampo.fi/). For example, a painting can be linked, based on the underlying ontologies and metadata, with the biography of the painter in Wikipedia or in the National Biography, with other paintings of the artist in the collections of other museums, with photos and books about the artist, and so on. This gives the end-user a richer experience than is possible with traditional audio guide systems. For the museums, TravelSampo offers a cost-efficient and dynamic way of creating information rich audio guide programs, and re-using and linking each others collections through linked data, leading to a win-win situation. The paper presents and discusses the underlying ideas of TravelSampo and our experiences in developing the systems especially from the content publishers’, i.e. the museums’ viewpoint. [1] E. Mäkelä, J. Väätäinen, R. Alitalo, O. Suominen, E. Hyvönen: Discovering Places of Interest through Direct and Indirect Associations in Heterogeneous Sources - The TravelSampo System. Terra Cognita 2011: Foundations, Technologies and Applications of the Geospatial Web, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Vol-798, 2011. http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-798/proceedings.pdf
Eero Hyvönen, Thea Lindquist, Juha Törnroos and Eetu Mäkelä: History on the Semantic Web as Linked Data - An Event Gazetteer and Timeline for World War I. Proceedings of CIDOC 2012 - Enriching Cultural Heritage, Helsinki, Finland, CIDOC, http://www.cidoc2012.fi/en/cidoc2012/programme, June, 2012. bib pdf
Events are an essential component of cultural heritage (CH) Linked Data (LD): they link actors, places, times, objects, and other events into larger narrative structures, providing a rich basis for semantic searching, recommending, analysis, and visualization of CH data. This paper argues that shared vocabularies (gazetteers, ontologies) of events, such as the “Battle of Normandy” or “Crucifixion of Jesus”, are necessary to facilitate the aggregation and linking of heterogeneous content from various collections. For example, biographies, histories, photos, and paintings often reference or depict events. A set of general requirements for an event gazetteer is presented, based on the needs of publishing, aggregating, and reusing cultural heritage content as Linked Data. After this, a metadata model addressing the presented requirements for representing historical events is outlined. The model is being applied in a case study aimed at developing an event ontology for World War I (WWI). Our goals from an end-user perspective are twofold: 1) Facilitate event-based cataloging for curators in memory organizations; 2) Utilize semantic event descriptions and narrative event structures in end-user applications for searching and linking documents and other content about WWI, and for structuring and visualizing them.
Jouni Tuominen, Kim Viljanen and Eero Hyvönen: Ontologiapalvelut semanttisessa webissä (Ontology services on the Semantic Web). (in Finnish), Tietojenkäsittelytiede, no. 34, pp. 17-36, Tietojenkäsittelytieteen Seura ry, April, 2012. bib pdf
Ontologiat ovat keskeinen osa semanttista webiä: ne toimivat yhteisinä jaettuina käsitteistöinä, joiden avulla tietokoneet voivat käsitellä tietoa älykkäämmin. Jotta eri toimijat voivat hyödyntää yhteisiä käsitteistöjä sovelluksissaan, ontologiat on julkaistava heidän käyttöönsä. Yksinkertaisimmillaan ontologiat voidaan julkaista tiedostomuodossa. Tällöin jokainen toimija joutuu toteuttamaan itse toiminnallisuuksia ontologioiden hyödyntämiseen. Koska osa toiminnallisuuksista on yleisiä, useissa järjestelmissä toistuvia, niiden toteuttaminen valmiina palveluina on mielekästä. Palveluita voidaan tarjota ihmiskäyttäjille käyttöliittymäkomponentteina sekä ohjelmalliseen käyttöön rajapintoina, joita käyttämällä toiminnallisuudet voidaan integroida asiakasjärjestelmiin. Tässä artikkelissa kuvataan ontologioiden käyttäjäryhmien tarpeita sekä ontologiapalveluiden toteutuksia. Yleisten ontologioiden käyttämiseen liittyvien toiminnallisuuksien tarjoamiseksi esitetään ontologiapalvelu ONKI, joka on osa Suomalaiset semanttisen webin ontologiat -hankesarjassa (FinnONTO, 2003–2012) kehitettyä ontologiainfrastruktuuria. Artikkeli perustuu Jouni Tuomisen pro gradu -työhön, jolle Tietojenkäsittelytieteen Seura ry myönsi lukuvuoden 2009–2010 pro gradu -palkinnon. Tutkimustyöhön ovat osallistuneet myös Kim Viljanen ja Eero Hyvönen.
Eetu Mäkelä, Eero Hyvönen and Tuukka Ruotsalo: How to deal with massively heterogeneous cultural heritage data – lessons learned in CultureSampo. Semantic Web – Interoperability, Usability, Applicability, vol. 3, no. 1, January, 2012. bib pdf link
This paper presents the CultureSampo system for publishing heterogeneous linked data as a service. Discussed are the problems of converting legacy data into linked data, as well as the challenge of making the massively heterogeneous yet interlinked cultural heritage content interoperable on a semantic level. Novel user interface concepts for then utilizing the content are also presented. In the approach described, the data is published not only for human use, but also as intelligent services for other computer systems that can then provide interfaces of their own for the linked data. As a concrete use case of using CultureSampo as a service, the BookSampo system for publishing Finnish fiction literature on the semantic web is presented.

2011

Eetu Mäkelä, Kaisa Hypén and Eero Hyvönen: BookSampo--Lessons Learned in Creating a Semantic Portal for Fiction Literature. Proceedings of ISWC-2011, Bonn, Germany, Springer-Verlag, 2011. bib pdf
BookSampo is a semantic portal in use, covering metadata about practically all Finnish fiction literature of Finnish public libraries on a work level. The system introduces a variety of semantic web novelties deployed into practise: The underlying data model is based on the emerging functional, content-centered metadata indexing paradigm using RDF. Linked Data (LD) principles are used for mapping the metadata with tens of interlinked ontologies in the national FinnONTO ontology infrastructure. The contents are also linked with the large LD metadata repository of related cultural heritage content of CultureSampo. BookSampo is actually based on using CultureSampo as a semantic web service, demonstrating the idea of re-using semantic content from multiple perspectives without the need for modifications. Most of the content has been transformed automatically from existing databases, with the help of ontologies derived from thesauri in use in Finland, but in addtion tens of volunteered librarians have participated in a Web 2.0 fashion in annotating and correcting the metadata, especially regarding older litarature. For this purpose, semantic web editing tools and public ONKI ontology services were created and used. The paper focuses on lessons learned in the process of creating the semantic web basis of BookSampo.
Kaisa Hypén and Eetu Mäkelä: An ideal model for an information system for fiction and its application: Kirjasampo and Semantic Web. Library Review, vol. 60, no. 4, April, 2011. bib link
Purpose – Library Director Jarmo Saarti introduced a wide or ideal model for fiction in literature in his dissertation, published in 1999. It introduces those aspects that should be included in an information system for fiction. Such aspects include literary prose and its intertextual references to other works, the writer, readers and critics receptions of the work as well as a researcher s view. It is also important to note how libraries approach a literary work by means of inventory, classification and content description. The most ambiguous of the aspects relates to that context in cultural history, which the work reflects and is a part of. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach – Since the model consists of several components which are not found in present library information systems and cannot be implemented by them, a new way had to be found to produce, save, process and present fiction‐related metadata. The Semantic Computing Research Group of Aalto University has developed several Semantic Web services for use in the field of culture, so cooperation with it and the use of Semantic Web tools were a natural starting point for the construction of the new service. Kirjasampo will be based on the Semantic Web RDF data model. The model enables a flexible linking of metadata derived from different sources, and it can be used to build a Semantic Web that can be approached contextually from different angles. Findings – The “semantically enriched” ideal model for fiction has hence been realised, at least to some extent: Kirjasampo supports literature‐related metadata that is more varied than earlier and aims to account for different contexts within literature and connections with regard to other cultural phenomena. It also includes contemporary reviews of works and, as such, readers receptions as well. Modern readers can share their views on works, once the user interface of the server is completed. It will include several features from the Kirjasto 2.0‐application, which enables the evaluation, description and recommendations of works. The service should be online by the end of Spring 2011. Research limitations/implications – The project involves novel collaboration between a public library and a computer science research unit, and utilises a novel approach to the description of fiction. Practical implications – The system encourages user participation in the description of fiction and is of practical benefit to librarians in understanding both how fiction is organised and how users interpret the same. Originality/value – Upon completion, the service will be the first Finnish information system for libraries built with the tools of the Semantic Web which offers a completely new user environment and application for data produced by libraries. It also strives to create a new model for saving and producing data, available to both library professionals and readers. The aim is to save, accumulate and distribute literary knowledge, experiences and silent information.
Jussi Kurki: Toimijaontologia ja niiden käyttö semanttisessa webissä (Actor Ontologies and Their Usage on the Semantic Web. MSc Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, March, 2011. bib pdf

2010

Tomi Kauppinen, Panu Paakkarinen, Eetu Mäkelä, Heini Kuittinen, Jari Väätäinen and Eero Hyvönen: Geospatio-temporal Semantic Web for Cultural Heritage. Digital Culture and E-Tourism: Technologies, Applications and Management Approaches, 2010. bib pdf link
People frequently need to find knowledge related to places when they plan a leisure trip, when they are executing that plan in a certain place, or when they want to virtually explore a place they have visited in the past. In this chapter we present and discuss a set of methods for searching and browsing spatiotemporally referenced knowledge related to cultural objects, e.g. artifacts, photographs and visiting sites. These methods have been implemented in the semantic cultural heritage portal CULTURESAMPO that offers map-based interfaces for a user to explore hundreds of thousands of content objects and points of interest in Finland. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate novel ways to help the user 1) to decide where to go for a trip, and 2) to learn more about the neighborhoods and points of interest during the visit.
Kaisa Hypén and Eetu Mäkelä: RDF ja FRBRoo: Kirjasammon skeemasta. Informaatiotutkimus, vol. 29, no. 3, 2010. bib pdf
Rami Alatalo: Ontologiapalvelun käyttöliittymän jatkokehitys (Further Development of an Ontology Service User Interface). BSc Thesis (in Finnish), Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Degree Program of Computer Science and Engineering, December, 2010. bib pdf
Eetu Mäkelä: View-Based User Interfaces for the Semantic Web. Dissertation, Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo, November, 2010. D.Sc. dissertation. bib pdf
This thesis explores the possibilities of using the view-based search paradigm to create intelligent user interfaces on the Semantic Web. After surveying several semantic search techniques, the view-based search paradigm is explained, and argued to fit in a valuable niche in the field. To test the argument, numerous portals with different user interfaces and data were built using the paradigm. Based on the results of these experiments, this thesis argues that the paradigm provides a strong, extendable and flexible base on which to built semantic user interfaces. Designing the actual systems to be as adaptable as possible is also discussed.
Osma Suominen and Eero Hyvönen: Expressing and Aggregating Rich Event Descriptions. Proceedings of the 6th Workshop on Scripting and Development on the Semantic Web, Heraklion, Greece, May, 2010. bib pdf
Publishing information about upcoming events such as concerts and discussion group meetings in a structured format allows the event information to be aggregated, filtered and delivered to potential participants. Making automatic personalized recommendations about events requires structured metadata such as machine-understandable locations and semantic descriptions about the topic and audience of the event. We present a survey of the state of current semantic representation formats for events, including iCalendar and its RDFa and microformat representations, and show that their support for expressing rich structured metadata is limited. We have also tested how well different tools support and understand the formats. Based on the surveys we have implemented a rich event information schema for a health-oriented activity portal and developed an aggregation and validation tool for gathering and processing event information.
Jouni Tuominen: Helppokytkentäiset ontologiapalvelut semanttisessa webissä. MSc Thesis (in Finnish), University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, May, 2010. bib pdf
Ontologiat luovat semanttisen webin perustan: ne toimivat yhteisinä jaettuina käsitteistöinä, joiden avulla tietokoneet voivat käsitellä tietoa älykkäämmin. Jotta eri toimijat voivat hyödyntää yhteisiä käsitteistöjä sovelluksissaan, ontologiat on julkaistava heidän käyttöönsä. Yksinkertaisimmillaan ontologiat voidaan julkaista datana, tiedostomuodossa. Tällöin jokainen toimija joutuu toteuttamaan itse toiminnallisuuksia ontologioiden hyödyntämiseen. Osa toiminnallisuuksista on yleisiä, useissa järjestelmissä toistuvia, kuten ontologian visualisointi, selaaminen ja käsitehaku. On kuitenkin kustannustehokkaampaa toteuttaa yleisiä ontologiatoiminnallisuuksia valmiina palveluina. Palveluita voidaan tarjota ihmiskäyttäjille käyttöliittymäkomponentteina sekä ohjelmalliseen käyttöön rajapintoina, joita käyttämällä toiminnallisuudet voidaan integroida asiakasjärjestelmiin. Lisäksi käytettäessä ontologioita palveluina toimijoiden käytössä on aina ontologioiden ajantasaiset versiot. Tässä tutkielmassa kuvataan ontologioiden käyttäjäryhmien -- ontologioiden kehittäjien, tiedon annotoijien, tiedon hakijoiden ja semanttisen webin sovellusten kehittäjien -- tarpeita sekä esitellään ontologioiden hyödyntämiseen kehitettyjä sovelluksia. Yleisten ontologioiden käyttämiseen liittyvien toiminnallisuuksien tarjoamiseksi esitetään ontologiapalvelu ONKI, joka julkistettiin virallisesti käyttöön syyskuussa 2008.
Tuukka Ruotsalo: Methods and Applications for Ontology-Based Recommender Systems. Dissertation, Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo, May, 2010. bib link
Tomi Kauppinen: Methods for Creating and Using Geospatio-temporal Semantic Web. Dissertation, Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo, April, 2010. bib link

2009

Suvi Kettula: Semanttisen webin ontologisen tekstiilikäsitteistön kehittäminen ja liittäminen museon luettelointijärjestelmiin. Dissertation, December, 2009. Väitöskirja, Helsingin yliopisto, käsityötieteen laitos. bib link
Tuomas Palonen, Jouni Hyvönen and Joeli Takala Eero Hyvönen: Semanttinen Kalevala - Kulttuurisammon taontaa (Semantic Kalevala - Forging the CutureSampo). December, 2009. bib pdf
Osma Suominen, Eero Hyvönen, Kim Viljanen and Eija Hukka: HealthFinland-a National Semantic Publishing Network and Portal for Health Information. Journal of Web Semantics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 271-376, Dec, 2009. bib pdf
Providing citizens with reliable, up-to-date and individually relevant health information on the web is done by governmental, non-governmental, business and other organizations. Currently the information is published with little co-ordination and co-operation between the publishers. For publishers, this means duplicated work and costs due to publishing same information twice on many websites. Also maintaining links between websites requires work. From the citizens point of view, finding content is difficult due to e.g. differences in layman’s vocabularies compared to medical terminology and difficulties in aggregating information from several sites. To solve these problems, we propose as a solution a national scale semantic publishing system HealthFinland which consists of a 1) a centralized content infrastructure of health ontologies and services with tools, 2) a distributed semantic content creation channel based on several health organizations, and 3) an intelligent semantic portal aggregating and presenting the contents from intuitive and health promoting end-user perspectives for human users as well as for other web sites and portals.
Jussi Kurki and Eero Hyvönen: Authority Control of People and Organizations on the Semantic Web. Proceedings of the International Conferences on Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web 2009 (ICSD2009), Trento, Italy, September, 2009. bib pdf
Authors and documents with identical titles are common in the digital library environment. In order to manage identities correctly, authority control is used by library and information scientists for disam- biguating and cross-referencing entity names. We argue that the benefits of traditional authority control can be enhanced by using techniques and technologies of the Semantic Web, leading to simpler management of multiple languages, better linkability of resources, simpler reuse of au- thority registries in applications, and less work in indexing. To demon- strate our propositions, we have created a prototype of an ontology server and service called ONKI People that is used in two ways: First, it is a centralized authority service providing human end-users with efficient and easy to use authority finding and disambiguation services based on faceted semantic search and visualizations. The services are available on- line also as AJAX and Web Services API for machines to use. Second, the underlying RDF triple store can be used as a content resource in ap- plications such as semantic cultural heritage portals. The paper discusses and demonstrates both use cases in a real life setting.
Eeva Ahonen and Eero Hyvönen: Publishing Historical Texts on the Semantic Web - A Case Study. Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC2009), Berkeley, CA, USA, September, 2009. bib pdf
Historical texts are an important component of cultural heritage, and are being digitized and published on the web in various portals for the researhers and the public. However, searching and linking them with related contents is challenging due the non-structured text form, digitization errors, and the differences and variations between old and modern language, including historical names (e.g. places), used for querying. This paper addresses these issues by presenting an approach and a system for publishing old texts on the semantic web. As a case study, an existing historical newspaper archive on the web is considered. In our model, semantic metadata is added to the text using automated concept extraction methods. Search is implemented with semantic techniques, by creating a multi-faceted search interface for the text materials. Problems due to OCR errors and spelling variants are addressed with a fuzzy string matching algorithm trying to guess corresponding words in a lexicon, and giving suggestions for corrected words forms. References between texts in the library as well as links between the library and external knowledge sources are formed by using shared ontologies for semantic annotations.
Mikko Salonoja: Palveluiden semanttinen kuvailu ja haku. MSc Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Automation and Systems Technology, September, 2009. bib pdf
Ihminen tarvitsee kuluttajana ja yrittäjänä usein toisten ihmisten ja organisaatioden tukea palveluiden muodossa. Aiemmin tuntemattomien palveluiden löytäminen voi kuitenkin olla vaikeaa Internetin tiedon määrän lisääntyessä, koska tiedonhakijalle mielekäs sisältö hau­tautuu helposti epäolennaisen tiedon joukkoon. Tämän ongelman helpottamiseksi semantti­sen webin tekniikat tarjoavat uusia mahdollisuuksia. Tässä diplomityössä tutkittiin millaisia palveluiden haun kannalta hyödyllisiä ratkaisuja on aiemmin toteutettu. Tämän jälkeen nämä ratkaisut peilattiin kahden Internetissä sijaitsevan palvelun, PKT­-säätiön ylläpitämä Yrityksen palveluhakemisto ja Suomen Asiakastiedon ylläpitämä Aarre­palvelu, parannusehdotuksiksi. Tutkittuja palveluita ehdotettiin tässä diplomityössä parannettavan useilla erilaisilla tavoil­la. Näistä osalla ei ollut suoraan mitään tekemistä semanttisen webin tekniikoiden kanssa ja osa taas liittyi semanttiseen webiin hyvin kiinteästi. Erityisesti maantieteellisen tiedon käsittelyssä havaittiin olevan runsaasti kehitettävää molempien tutkittujen palveluiden koh­dalla. Myös eroja parannusehdotusten välillä oli havaittavissa. Johtuen Aarre­-palvelun suu­remmasta tietokannasta ja suuremmasta käyttäjäjoukosta siinä sanojen välisen verkon hyödyntäminen näytti olevan merkityksellisempää kuin Yrityksen palveluhakemiston koh­dalla.
Matias Frosterus and Eero Hyvönen: Bridging the Search Gap between the Web of Pages and Web of Data by Combining Ontological Document Expansion with Text Search. Proceedings of the International Conferences on Digital Libraries and the Semantic Web 2009 (ICSD2009), Trento, Italy, September, 2009. bib pdf
The Semantic Web extends traditional web documents, i.e. the Web of Pages, with conceptual structures based on ontologies and metadata, i.e. the Web of Data. This paper presents a hybrid document search approach combining the benefits of the traditional text search of literal documents and the semantic search based on their underlying conceptual structures. The approach is based on document expansion, where documents are automatically annotated with not only the concepts explicitly present in a given document, but also with the ontologically related concepts using smaller weights. Our test results using the CLEF Test Suite suggest that document expansion alone achieves better recall than text search at the expense of precision. As a solution, a method of combining document expansion with text search is presented in which better recall was obtained without sacrificing precision. This approach seems promising when integrating unstructured, textual content with the Semantic Web of Data.
Osma Suominen, Kim Viljanen and Eero Hyvönen: TerveSuomi-portaalin metatietomäärittely (HealthFinland portal metadata specification). Jun 18, 2009. bib pdf
Jouni Tuominen, Tomi Kauppinen, Kim Viljanen and Eero Hyvönen: Ontology-Based Query Expansion Widget for Information Retrieval. Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Scripting and Development for the Semantic Web (SFSW 2009), 6th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2009), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, http://ceur-ws.org/, Heraklion, Greece, May 31 - June 4, 2009. bib pdf
In this paper we present an ontology-based query expansion widget which utilizes the ontologies published in the ONKI Ontology Service. The widget can be integrated into a web page, e.g. a search system of a museum catalogue, enhancing the page by providing a query expansion functionality. We have tested the system with general, domain-specific and spatio-temporal ontologies.
Eero Hyvönen, Eetu Mäkelä, Tomi Kauppinen, Olli Alm, Jussi Kurki, Tuukka Ruotsalo, Katri Seppälä, Joeli Takala, Kimmo Puputti, Heini Kuittinen, Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen, Tuomas Palonen, Matias Frosterus, Reetta Sinkkilä, Panu Paakkarinen, Joonas Laitio, Katariina Nyberg: CultureSampo - A National Publication System of Cultural Heritage on the Semantic Web 2.0. Proceedings of the 6th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2009), Heraklion, Greece, May 31 - June 4, 2009. Springer-Verlag. bib pdf
CULTURESAMPO is an application demonstration of a national level publication system of cultural heritage contents on the Web, based on ideas and technologies of the Semantic (Web and) Web 2.0. On the semantic side, the system presents new solutions to interoperability problems of dealing with multiple ontologies of different domains, and to problems of integrating multiple metadata schemas and cross-domain content into a homogeneous semantic portal. A novelty of the system is to use semantic models based on events and narrative process descriptions for modeling and visualizing cultural phenomena, and for semantic recommendations. On the Web 2.0 side, CULTURESAMPO proposes and demonstrates a content creation process for collaborative, distributed ontology and content development including different memory organizations and citizens. The system provides the cultural heritage contents to end-users in a new way through multiple (nine) thematic perspectives, based on semantic visualizations. Furthermore, CULTURESAMPO services are available for external web-applications to use through semantic AJAX widgets.
Jouni Tuominen, Matias Frosterus, Kim Viljanen and Eero Hyvönen: ONKI SKOS Server for Publishing and Utilizing SKOS Vocabularies and Ontologies as Services. Proceedings of the 6th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2009), Heraklion, Greece, May 31 - June 4, 2009. Springer-Verlag. bib pdf
Vocabularies are the building blocks of the Semantic Web providing shared terminological resources for content indexing, information retrieval, data exchange, and content integration. Most semantic web applications in practical use are based on lightweight ontologies and, more recently, on the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) data model being standardized by W3C. Easy and cost-efficient publication, integration, and utilization methods of vocabulary services are therefore highly important for the proliferation of the Semantic Web. This paper presents the ONKI SKOS Server for these tasks. Using ONKI SKOS, a SKOS vocabulary or a lightweight ontology can be published on the web as ready-to-use services in a matter of minutes. The services include not only a browser for human usage, but also Web Service and AJAX interfaces for concept finding, selecting and transporting resources from the ONKI SKOS Server to connected systems. Code generation services for AJAX and Web Service APIs are provided automatically, too. ONKI SKOS services are also used for semantic query expansion in information retrieval tasks. The idea of publishing ontologies as services is analogous to Google Maps. In our case, however, vocabulary services are provided and mashed-up in applications. ONKI SKOS was published in the beginning of 2008 and is to our knowledge the first generic SKOS server of its kind. The system has been used to publish and utilize some 60 vocabularies and ontologies in the National Finnish Ontology Service ONKI www.yso.fi.
Tomi Kauppinen, Kimmo Puputti, Panu Paakkarinen, Heini Kuittinen, Jari Väätäinen and Eero Hyvönen: Learning and Visualizing Cultural Heritage Connections between Places on the Semantic Web. Proceedings of the Workshop on Inductive Reasoning and Machine Learning on the Semantic Web (IRMLeS2009), The 6th Annual European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2009), May 31 - June 4, 2009. bib pdf
Semantic web techniques can be used to relate two things together. However, usually this relation is not accompanied with a measure that would tell how interesting the relation is. Data mining tradition provides interestingness measures; it is natural to try and fit semantic web and data mining traditions together. In this paper we use support and confidence values provided by association rule mining as interestingness measures for relations. The presented method is tailored to location ontologies in order to find out what interesting mutual relations two places have based on annotations in the cultural heritage domain. The method also uses ontology-based reasoning to group places together. We present tests of running the method against a set of over 60,000 annotations in order to find out cultural heritage connections between places.
Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen and Eero Hyvönen: Ontology Libraries for Production Use: The Finnish Ontology Library Service ONKI. Proceedings of the 6th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2009), Heraklion, Greece, May 31 - June 4, 2009. Springer-Verlag. bib pdf
This paper discusses problems of creating and using ontology library services in production use. One approach to a solution is presented with an online implementation--the Finnish Ontology Library Service ONKI--that is in pilot use on a national level in Finland. ONKI contributes to previous research on ontology libraries in many ways: First, mashup and web service support with various tools is provided for cost-efficient utilization of ontologies in indexing and search applications. Second, services covering the different phases of the ontology life cycle are provided. Third, the services are provided and used in real world applications on a national scale. Fourth, the ontology framework is being developed by a collaborative effort by organizations representing different application domains, such as health, culture, and business.
Eero Hyvönen, Eetu Mäkelä, Tomi Kauppinen, Olli Alm, Jussi Kurki, Tuukka Ruotsalo, Katri Seppälä, Joeli Takala, Kimmo Puputti, Heini Kuittinen, Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen, Tuomas Palonen, Matias Frosterus, Reetta Sinkkilä, Panu Paakkarinen, Joonas Laitio, Katariina Nyberg: CultureSampo - Finnish Culture on the Semantic Web 2.0. Thematic Perspectives for the End-user. Proceedings, Museums and the Web 2009, Indianapolis, USA, April 15-18, 2009. bib pdf
We present an overview of CultureSampo, an ambitious system for creating a collective semantic memory of the cultural heritage of a nation on the Semantic Web 2.0, combining ideas underlying the Semantic Web and the Web 2.0. The system addresses the semantic web challenge of aggregating highly heterogeneous, cross-domain cultural heritage collections and other contents into a semantically rich intelligent system for human and machine users. At the same time, CultureSampo is an approach to solve the social and practical Web 2.0 challenge of organizing the underlying collaborative ontology development and content creation work of memory organizations and citizens. This paper focuses on CultureSampo’s search, recommendation, and visualization services for the end-users. The key idea here is to access cultural heritage on the Semantic Web through nine “thematic perspectives”, such as places on the maps, the social network of cultural persons, timelines, and narrative texts, e.g. biographies and literary works.
Eero Hyvönen, Eetu Mäkelä, Tomi Kauppinen, Olli Alm, Jussi Kurki, Tuukka Ruotsalo, Katri Seppälä, Joeli Takala, Kimmo Puputti, Heini Kuittinen, Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen, Tuomas Palonen, Matias Frosterus, Reetta Sinkkilä, Panu Paakkarinen, Joonas Laitio, Katariina Nyberg: CultureSampo - Finnish Cultural Heritage Collections on the Semantic Web 2.0. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Digital Humanities for Japanese Arts and Cultures (DH-JAC-2009), Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan, March, 2009. bib pdf
This paper presents an overview of the SemanticWeb 2.0 application CultureSampo, an ambitious system for creating a collective semantic memory of the cultural heritage of a nation on the Semantic Web 2.0, combining ideas underlying the Semantic Web and the Web 2.0. The system addresses the semantic web challenge of aggregating highly heterogeneous, cross-domain cultural heritage content into a semantically rich intelligent system for human and machine users. At the same time, CultureSampo is an approach to solve the social and practical Web 2.0 challenge of organizing the underlying collaborative ontology development and content creation work of memory organizations and citizens.
Lynda Hardman, Jacco van Ossenbruggen, Lora Aroy and Eero Hyvönen: Using AI to Access and Experience Cultural Heritage. IEEE Intelligent Systems, vol. 24, no. 2, IEEE Computer Society, March/April, 2009. bib pdf
Tomi Kauppinen, Heini Kuittinen, Jouni Tuominen, Katri Seppälä and Eero Hyvönen: Extending an Ontology by Analyzing Annotation Co-occurrences in a Semantic Cultural Heritage Portal. Proceedings of the ASWC 2008 Workshop on Collective Intelligence (ASWC-CI 2008) organized as a part of the 3rd Asian Semantic Web Conference (ASWC 2008), Bangkok, Thailand, February 2-5, 2009. bib pdf
Ontologies aim to capture knowledge about things and their relationships. Publishing ontologies on the Semantic Web enables people and organizations to use shared ontologies in annotating e.g. photographs, videos, music, and other types of cultural objects. Search engines also use relationships provided by ontologies in semantic search, e.g. for query expansion or for view-based search. However, building ontologies is a time-consuming process, and it should be helped by automatic finding of interesting, possible relationships. Finding the correct concept for annotation purposes is helped by subsumption and partonomy hierarchies and associative relationships. In this paper we show how an analysis of co-occurrences of concepts in annotations can be used to provide interesting relationships for enriching ontological structures. We use association rule mining techniques and test the idea using a set of annotations of cultural objects in CULTURESAMPO portal and the Finnish General Upper Ontology YSO. The results are visualized in the ONKI SKOS browser to give an additional layer on top of the original relationships of the YSO ontology. An analysis shows that best ranked relationships should also be included in the ontology as subclassof or associative relationships.

2008

Tuukka Ruotsalo, Katri Seppälä, Kim Viljanen, Eetu Mäkelä, Jussi Kurki, Olli Alm, Tomi Kauppinen, Jouni Tuominen, Matias Frosterus, Reetta Sinkkilä and Eero Hyvönen: Ontology-­based Approach for Interoperability of Digital Collections. Signum, no. 5, 2008. bib pdf
This paper presents solutions and lessons learned in FinnONTO project carried out in Finland in 2003–2007. The paper focuses on three aspects of interoperability of digital collections. First, transforming thesauri to ontologies. Second, publishing ontologies for the use of indexers and content providers. Third, ontology based methods for improving end user access to digital collections.  The first aspect is analysed through case studies done with Finnish thesauri. The second is discussed by presenting the ONKI ontology server. The last aspect is demonstrated in the scope of the semantic portal CultureSampo for publishing cultural heritrage on the Semantic Web.
Eero Hyvönen, Suvi Kettula: Kulttuurisampo (CultureSampo. Museo-lehti, no. 4, Museoliitto, Helsinki, Finland, Nov, 2008. bib pdf
Kulttuurisampo kokoaa suomalaisen kulttuurin palapeliä aivan uudella tavalla, kirjoittavat Eero Hyvönen ja Suvi Kettula
Eero Hyvönen: Semanttinen web ja paikkatietoihin perustuvat palvelut (Semantic web and services based on geographical data. Historiaa kunnioittaen, tulevaisuuteen suunnaten. Maanmittaustieteen päivät 2008, Maanmittaustieteiden Seura, julkaisu n:o 45, ss. 8-16, Espoo, Finland, Nov, 2008. bib pdf
Artikkelissa luodaan katsaus kansallisessa Suomalaiset semanttisen webin ontologiat hankkeessa FinnONTO 2003-2007 ja FinnONTO 2.0 2008-2010 kehitettyihin paikkaontologioihin SUO (Suomalainen paikkaontologia) ja SAPO (Suomen ajallinen paikkaontologia), näiden julkaisemiseen AJAX-palveluina Kansallisessa ontologiapalvelussa ONKI, sekä paikkaontologioiden avulla Kulttuurisampo-portaaliin kehitettyihin palveluhin.
Eero Hyvönen, Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen, Katri Seppälä, Tomi Kauppinen, Matias Frosterus, Reetta Sinkkilä, Jussi Kurki, Olli Alm, Eetu Mäkelä and Joonas Laitio: National Ontology Infrastructure Service ONKI. Oct 1, 2008. bib pdf
This paper presents the national level cross-domain ontology and ontology service infrastructure ONKI used in Finland. The novelty of ONKI is based on two ideas. First, the core ontologies are developed collaboratively by experts transforming thesauri into mutually aligned lightweight ontologies, based on a large top ontology that is extended by various domain specific ontologies. Second, the National Ontology Service ONKI has been implemented for publishing ontologies cost-efficiently as ready to use services. ONKI provides legacy and other applications with ready to use functionalities for using ontologies on the HTML level by Ajax and semantic widgets. ONKI has been used in various applications for creating mash-up applications in a way analogous to using Google Maps, but in our case external applications are mashed-up with ontology support for indexing and information retrieval.
Osma Suominen, Eero Hyvönen, Kim Viljanen, Eija Hukka: HealthFinland - A National Publication System for Semantic Health Information. Semantic Computing Research Group, Helsinki University of Technology and University of Helsinki, Sept 29, 2008. bib pdf
Eero Hyvönen, Eetu Mäkelä, Tomi Kauppinen, Olli Alm, Jussi Kurki, Tuukka Ruotsalo, Katri Seppälä Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen, Tuomas Palonen, Matias Frosterus, Reetta Sinkkilä, Panu Paakkarinen, Joonas Laitio, Katariina Nyberg: CultureSampo - A Collective Memory of Finnish Cultural Heritage on the Semantic Web 2.0. Semantic Computing Research Group, Helsinki University of Technology and University of Helsinki, Sept 29, 2008. bib pdf
This paper presents the Semantic Web 2.0 application CULTURESAMPO, an ambitious system of creating a collective semantic memory of the cultural heritage of a nation on the Semantic Web 2.0, combining ideas underlying the Semantic Web and the Web 2.0. The system addresses the semantic challenge of aggregating highly heterogeneous, cross-domain cultural heritage into a semantically rich intelligent system for human and machine users. At the same time, CULTURESAMPO is an approach to solve the social and practical Web 2.0 challenge of organizing the underlying collaborative ontology development and content creation work of memory organizations and citizens.
Jussi Kurki: Finding People and Organizations on the Semantic Web. AI and Machine Consciousness - Proceedings of the 13th Finnish Artificial Intelligence Conference STeP 2008, Espoo, Finland, August 20-22, 2008. bib pdf
Finding people is essential in finding information. Librarians and information scientists have studied authority control - psychologists and sociologists social networks. In aforementioned, authors link to documents (and co-authors) creating access points to information. In latter, social paths serve as channels for rumours as well as expertise. Key problems include identification and disambiguation of individuals followed by difficulties of tracking the social connections. With semantic web, these aspects can be approached simultaneously. In this paper, we define a simple ontology for describing people and organizations. The model is based on FOAF and other existing vocabularies. We also demonstrate search and visualization tools for finding people.
Jouni Tuominen, Matias Frosterus, Kim Viljanen and Eero Hyvönen: ONKI-SKOS - Publishing and Utilizing Thesauri in the Semantic Web. AI and Machine Consciousness - Proceedings of the 13th Finnish Artificial Intelligence Conference STeP 2008, Espoo, Finland, August 20-22, 2008. bib pdf
Thesauri and other controlled vocabularies act as building blocks of the Semantic Web by providing shared terminology for facilitating information retrieval, data exchange and integration. Representation and publishing methods are needed for utilizing thesauri efficiently, e.g., in content indexing and searching. W3C has provided the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) data model for expressing concept schemes, such as thesauri. A standard representation format for thesauri eliminates the need for implementing thesaurus specific rules or applications for processing them. However, there do not exist general tools which provide out of the box support for publishing and utilizing SKOS vocabularies in applications, without needing to implement application specific user interfaces for end users. For solving this problem the ONKI-SKOS server is presented.
Reetta Sinkkilä, Eetu Mäkelä, Tomi Kauppinen and Eero Hyvönen: Combining Context Navigation with Semantic Autocompletion to Solve Problems in Concept Selection. First International Workshop on Semantic Metadata Management and Applications, SeMMA 2008, Located at the Fifth European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2008), Tenerife, Spain, June 2nd, 2008. Proceedings (Khalid Belhajjame, Mathieu d Aquin, Peter Haase and Paolo Missier (eds.)), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 346, pp. 61-68, CEUR-WS.org, Tenerife, Spain, June 1-5, 2008. bib pdf
Many tasks on the semantic web require the user to choose concepts from a limited vocabulary e.g. for describing an indexed resource or for use in semantic search. Semantic autocompletion interfaces offer an efficient way for concept selection. However, these interfaces usually do not expose the semantic context of the matched concepts, thereby making it hard to know if a matched concept is the right one, as well as hiding possibly more appropriate choices. Ontology browsers, on the other hand, show context but do not allow quick discovery or embedding into other applications. To lessen these problems, we present an interface combining semantic autocompletion with in-place ontological context navigation. Because required context differs between ontologies, the implementation was designed to make it easy to add different contexts and visualizations. To test the applicability of our idea and implementation the, system was tested on three ontologies with different requirements and structure.
Eero Hyvönen, Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen and Katri Seppälä: Building a National Semantic Web Ontology and Ontology Service Infrastructure--The FinnONTO Approach. Proceedings of the European Semantic Web Conference ESWC 2008, Springer, Tenerife, Spain, June 1-5, 2008. bib pdf
This article presents the vision and results of creating a national level cross-domain ontology service infrastructure in Finland in the FinnONTO project. The novelty of the infrastructure is based on two ideas. First, a system of open source core ontologies is being developed by transforming thesauri into mutually aligned lightweight ontologies, including a top ontology of 20,000 concepts that is extended by various domain specific ontologies. Second, the ONKI Ontology Server framework for publishing ontologies as ready to use services has been designed and implemented. ONKI provides legacy and other applications with ready to use functionalities for using ontologies on the user interface level as semantic widgets. The idea is to use ONKI for creating mash-up applications in a way analogous to using Google or Yahoo Maps, but in our case external applications are mashed-up with ontology support. The ontology framework presented is operational on the web and is being used in creating the application demonstrations.
Eero Hyvönen, Eetu Mäkelä, Tuukka Ruotsalo, Tomi Kauppinen, Olli Alm, Jussi Kurki, Joeli Takala, Kimmo Puputti and Heini Kuittinen: CultureSampo-Finnish Culture on the Semantic Web. Posters of the 5th European Semantic Web Conference 2008 (ESWC 2008), Tenerife, Spain, June 1-5, 2008. bib pdf
This paper presents the semantic portal CULTURESAMPO---Finnish Culture on the Semantic Web . The portal provides memory organizations and other cultural content publishers with a national, shared semantic publication channel for heteroge- nous cultural contents. The content comes from over ten organizations and is annotated using various ontologies of the FinnONTO infrastructure. For the end-user, intel- ligent semantic search, recommendation, and visualization services for accessing and learning about cultural heritage are provided.
Tomi Kauppinen, Jari Väätäinen and Eero Hyvönen: Creating and Using Geospatial Ontology Time Series in a Semantic Cultural Heritage Portal. S. Bechhofer et al.(Eds.): Proceedings of the 5th European Semantic Web Conference 2008 ESWC 2008, LNCS 5021, Tenerife, Spain, pp. 110-123, Springer-Verlag, June 1-5, 2008. bib pdf
Content annotations in semantic cultural heritage portals commonly make spatiotemporal references to historical regions and places using names whose meanings are different in different times. For example, historical administrational regions such as countries, municipalities, and cities have been renamed, merged together, split into parts, and annexed or moved to and from other regions. Even if the names of the regions remain the same (e.g., “Germany”), the underlying regions and their relationships to other regions may change (e.g., the regional coverage of “Germany” at different times). As a result, representing and finding the right ontological meanings for historical geographical names on the semantic web creates severe problems both when annotating contents and during information retrieval. This paper presents a model for representing the meaning of changing geospatial resources. Our aim is to enable precise annotation with temporal geospatial resources and to enable semantic search and browsing using related names from other historical time periods. A simple model and metadata schema is presented for representing and maintaining geospatial changes from which an explicit time series of temporal part-of ontologies can be created automatically. The model has been applied successfully to representing the complete change history of municipalities in Finland during 1865–2007, and the resulting ontology time series is used in the semantic cultural heritage portal CULTURESAMPO to support faceted semantic search of contents and to visualizing historical regions on overlaying maps originating from different historical eras.
Tomi Kauppinen, Riikka Henriksson, Reetta Sinkkilä, Robin Lindroos, Jari Väätäinen and Eero Hyvönen: Ontology-based Disambiguation of Spatiotemporal Locations. Proceedings of the 1st international workshop on Identity and Reference on the Semantic Web (IRSW2008), 5th European Semantic Web Conference 2008 (ESWC 2008), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073, June 1-5, 2008. bib pdf
Geographic place names are semantically often highly ambiguous. For example, there are 491 places in Finland sharing the same name ”Isosaari” (great island) that are instances of several geographical classes, such as Island, Forest, Peninsula, Inhabited area, etc. Referencing unambiguously to a particular ”Isosaari”, either when annotating content or during information retrieval, can be quite problematic and requires usage of advanced search methods and maps for semantic disambiguation. Historical places introduce even more challenges, since historical metadata commonly make spatiotemporal references to historical regions and places using names whose meanings are non-existing or different in different times. This paper presents how these problems have been addressed in a large Finnish place ontology SUO and a historical geo-ontology SAPO. A location ontology server ONKI-Geo has been created for publishing the ontologies and utilizing them as mashup services. To demonstrate the usability of our ontologies, two case applications in the cultural heritage domain are presented.
Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen and Eero Hyvönen: Publishing and Using Ontologies as Mash-Up Services. Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Scripting for the Semantic Web (SFSW2008), 5th European Semantic Web Conference 2008 (ESWC 2008), CEUR Workshop Proceedings, http://ceur-ws.org/, Tenerife, Spain, June 1-5, 2008. bib pdf
The Semantic Web is based on using ontologies for enabling semantically disambiguated data exchange between distributed systems on the web. This requires efficient means for publishing ontologies on the web to ensure the availability, sharing and acceptance of the ontologies. Support services are needed for utilizing ontologies easily and cost-effectively in applications and legacy systems lacking ontology support. To address these vital needs, this paper presents the ONKI ontology service which provides ready-to-use mash-up functionalities, such as semantic disambiguation, concept finding and concept fetching as ready-to-use web widgets for adding ontology support to e.g. HTML forms using JavaScript. Two implementations of the ONKI Server are presented: ONKI-SKOS for ontologies presented in the Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) language and ONKI-Geo for geographical ontologies with a map interface. The presented ONKI systems are operational on the web, used in the National Finnish Ontology Service. They have been successfully used in several pilot applications.
Robin Lindroos: Paikkatiedon ontologiapalvelu. MSc Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), May, 2008. bib pdf
Tämä diplomityö käsittelee menetelmiä, joilla paikkatietoaineistoja muunnetaan ontologiseen muotoon sekä esittelee palvelun, ONKI-Paikan, jolla ontologisessa muodossa olevaa paikkatietoa voidaan tuottaa, ylläpitää ja hakea. Palvelu perustuu paikkatiedon mallintamiseen Suomalaisen paikkaontologian SUO:n mukaisesti. Työ koostuu neljästä vaiheesta. Ensimmäisessä vaiheessa selvitetään menetelmä, jolla SUO-ontologia populoidaan paikkainstansseilla. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään paikkojen uniikkien tunnisteiden, URI:en luomiseen. Toisessa vaiheessa selvitetään, miten ontologian populointivaiheessa tuotetut paikkojen RDF-kuvaukset on tallennettava. Kolmannessa vaiheessa ratkotaan ontologisessa muodossa olevan paikkatietoaineiston suuren määrän tuomia ongelmia muun muassa kehittämällä paikkatiedon RDF-varastolle indeksointitietokanta nopeita hakuja varten. Neljännessä vaiheessa kehitetään rajapinta hakujen suorittamista varten sekä hakurajapintaa hyödyntävä graafinen, selaimessa toimiva käyttöliittymä. Työ on tehty osana FinnONTO-projektia, jossa kehitettiin suomalaisiin olosuhteisiin räätälöityjä semanttisen webin ontologioita sekä näitä hyödyntäviä palveluita.
Eero Hyvönen, Kim Viljanen, Osma Suominen, Eija Hukka: HealthFinland - Publishing Health Promotion Information on the Semantic Web. Proceedings of DrMED 2008: International Workshop on Describing Medical Web Resources. The 21st International Congress on the European Federation for Medical Informatics (MIE 2008), Göteborg, Sweden, May, 2008. bib pdf
Reetta Sinkkilä: Käsitteen kontekstiperustainen valinta semanttisessa webissä. MSc Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, May, 2008. bib pdf
Semanttisen webin ideana on kuvailla tietoa siten, että koneet pystyvät ymmärtämään sitä, ja käyttämään älykkäitä tekniikoita tiedon hyödyntämiseksi. Tiedon kuvailemise käytetään ontologioita jotka muodostavat laajoja käsiteverkkoja. Kuvailua varten ontologiasta on läydettävä tarkimmin kohdetta kuvaavat käsitteet. Tässä työssä tutkittiin minkälaisia menetelmiä käsitteenvalintaan on kehitetty ja millä tavoin käsitteenvalintaa voidaan tukea visuaalisin keinoin. Lisäksi perehdyttiin joihinkin semanttisen webin sovelluksiin niiden käsitteenvalinnan osalta. Käsitevalitsimissa havaittiin puutteita liittyen käsitteiden merkityksen disambiguointiin ja siihen, kuinka helppoa niiden avulla on valita paras käsite kuvaamaan tietoa. Ongelmia oli myös tavoissa esittää useiden ontologioiden yhdistelmiä. Näiden havaintojen pohjalta suunniteltiin ja toteutettiin yleinen ja monentyyppisen aineiston käsittelyyn soveltuva käsitevalitsin IRMA
Riikka Henriksson, Tomi Kauppinen and Eero Hyvönen: Core Geographical Concepts: Case Finnish Geo-Ontology. Location and the Web (LocWeb) 2008 workshop, 17th International World Wide Web Conference WWW 2008, ACM International Conference Proceeding Series; Vol. 300, Pages 57-60, Beijing, China, April 21-25, 2008. bib pdf
In this paper we examine 1) the scope of geo-ontologies used especially for the purposes of information retrieval on the Web, 2) the core geographical concepts and their mutual relations, and 3) the properties the concepts have. Furthermore, we present the Finnish geo-ontology (Suomalainen paikkaontologia, SUO) and discuss the theories and principles that have governed the development process, as well as the limitations and requirements the use of geographical dictionaries as an instance data source have imposed to the content and the structure of SUO.
Kim Viljanen, Jouni Tuominen, Teppo Känsälä and Eero Hyvönen: Distributed Semantic Content Creation and Publication for Cultural Heritage Legacy Systems. Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE International Conference on Distributed Human-Machine Systems, IEEE Press, Athens, Greece, March 9-12, 2008. bib pdf
Cultural heritage is by nature strongly interlinked, e.g. thematically and historically, but at the same time distributed in heterogeneous collections of different memory organizations at different locations. In order to provide the end-users with aggregated homogeneous views to distributed heterogeneous contents, semantic portals have been created successfully based on metadata and shared (or aligned) ontologies. This paper discusses two problems encountered in such a distributed semantic content creation environment. First, during the content creation work, how could a publisher start using shared ontologies in legacy cataloguing and annotation systems that do not support ontologies. Second, during content publication, how could a publisher re-use the aggregated content in its own legacy publication system, e.g., on the ordinary web pages of a museum or in a collection browser. As a solution, we present the ONKI Ontology Server for adding shared ontological annotation functionalities to legacy cataloguing systems in a practical, cost-efficient and lightweight way. For distributed publishing of the aggregated semantic portal services, we introduce the lightweight mash-up web widget components called floatlets . A major idea behind both the ONKI functionalities and floatlets is that they can be easily integrated with legacy systems on the user interface level, in the same spirit as e.g. Google Maps.
Matias Frosterus: Tekstiaineiston ontologiaperustainen indeksointi ja haku. MSc Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Automation and Systems Technology, March, 2008. bib pdf
Informaation lisääntyessä yhteiskunnassa vaaditaan sen tehokasta käsittelyä yhä enemmän ammattilaisten lisäksi myös tavallisilta käyttäjiltä. Tällöin luonnollinen pyrkimys on yksinkertaistaa ja automatisoida tiedonhakuprosessia mahdollisimman paljon, johon semanttisen webin tekniikat tarjoavat uusia mahdollisuuksia. Tässä diplomityössä tutkittiin mahdollisuuksia dokumentin laajentamisen ja ontologisten käsitteiden hyödyntämisen kautta parantaa tiedonhakuprosessia tekstipohjaiseen aineistoon, kuten sanomalehtiarkistoon. Tätä tarkoitusta varten luotiin automaattinen annotointi ja hakusovellus Airo, joka suorittaa jonkin annetun ontologian pohjalta dokumentin laajennuksen. Tämä tapahtuu ontologisella käsiteklusteroinnilla, jossa jonkin käsitteen esiintyminen tekstissä nostaa myös ontologian hierarkiassa läheisten käsitteiden painoa kyseistä dokumenttia indeksoitaessa ja haettaessa. Järjestelmän testit osoittivat, että käsitehaku yhdistettynä sanahakuun laskee haun tarkkuutta, mutta nostaa saantia. Sen sijaan hybridimenetelmä dokumentin- ja kyselyn laajennuksesta, jossa perinteisen sanahaun tuottamien dokumenttien käsitteillä suoritetaan laajentava haku, nosti saantia tarkkuuden kärsimättä. Luotu järjestelmä on ontologiariippumaton ja jokaisen ontologian tuottamat käsitteistykset talletetaan omaan indeksiinsä, jolloin niitä voidaan hakea erikseen.
Osma Suominen: Käyttäjäkeskeinen moninäkymähaku semanttisessa portaalissa. MSc Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, February, 2008. bib pdf
Tiedonhakuun webissä on kehitetty sanahaun lisäksi rikkaampia tiedonhaku- ja selausmenetelmiä, jotka mahdollistavat tutkivan tiedonhaun. Niistä on hyötyä silloin, kun käyttäjä ei etukäteen tiedä täsmälleen, mitä hän on etsimässä. Yksi tällainen hakukäyttöliittymätyyppi on moninäkymähaku, jossa haun kohteena oleva tietosisältö luokitellaan moniulotteiseksi avaruudeksi fasettiluokituksen periaattein. Käyttöliittymä mahdollistaa aineiston haun ja selaamisen minkä tahansa ulottuvuuden tai niiden yhdistelmän suhteen. Moninäkymähaun kehitys lähti liikkeelle käyttöliittymätutkimuksen piiristä. Moninäkymähakuun perustuvia käyttöliittymiä käytettiin myöhemmin semanttisen webin sovelluksissa ja portaaleissa, joissa kuitenkaan ei samassa määrin huomioitu käyttäjiä suunnitteluprosessin aikana. Tutkielmassa käyttäjäkeskeisiä suunnittelu- ja tiedonjäsennysmenetelmiä sovellettiin terveysaiheista materiaalia sisältävän tervesuomi.fi-portaalin suunnitteluun sekä toteutettiin moninäkymähakua käyttävä portaalin prototyyppi semanttisen webin teknologioiden avulla. Portaalin informaatioarkkitehtuuri suunniteltiin korttienjärjestämismenetelmän avulla ja sen käyttöliittymä rakennettiin käyttäjäkeskeisellä suunnittelu- ja arviointiprosessilla. Tulosten arviointi osoittaa, että käyttäjäkeskeisistä menetelmistä oli merkittävää hyötyä portaalin suunnittelussa. Valmiin prototyypin käytettävyyden arviointi osoitti, että portaalin käytettävyys on käyttäjäkeskeisten suunnittelu- ja arviointimenetelmien ansiosta saatu hyvälle tasolle. Arviointi myös paljasti portaalin aineistoissa, käyttöliittymässä ja tiedon jäsennystavassa ongelmia, joihin terveysportaalin jatkokehityksessä voidaan puuttua.
Antti Vehviläinen, Eero Hyvönen and Olli Alm: A Semi-automatic Semantic Annotation and Authoring Tool for a Library Help Desk Service. Emerging Technologies for Semantic Work Environments: Techniques, Methods, and Applications, IGI Group, Hershey, USA, 2008. bib pdf

2007

Onni Valkeapää, Olli Alm and Eero Hyvönen: A Framework for Ontology-based Adaptable Content Creation on the Semantic Web. Journal of Universal Computer Science, 2007. bib pdf
Creation of rich, ontology-based metadata is one of the major challenges in developing the Semantic Web. Emerging applications utilizing semantic web techniques, such as semantic portals, cannot be realized if there are no proper tools to provide metadata for them. This paper discusses how to make provision of metadata easier and cost-effective by an annotation framework comprising of annotation editor combined with shared ontology services. We have developed an annotation system supporting distributed collaboration in creating annotations, and hiding the complexity of the annotation schema and the domain ontologies from the annotators. Our system adapts flexibly to different metadata schemas, which makes it suitable for different applications. Support for using ontologies is based on ontology services, such as concept searching and browsing, concept URI fetching, semantic autocompletion and linguistic concept extraction. The system is being tested in various practical semantic portal projects.

Events and presentations

2012

World Wide Web oli - Linked Open Data tuli. FinnONTO-hankesarjan (2003-2012) päätösseminaari. (in Finnish), Aalto-yliopisto, Otaniemen kampuksen päärakennus, Otakaari 1, sali E, November 26, 2012. bib html

2011

Enabling Humanist Inferencing: on the Heuristic Potential of the Europeana Data Model. (in English), Aalto-university, TUAS House, Otaniementie 17, Hall AS 1, August 30, 2011. bib html
HS Open #2: seurataan rahaa. (in Finnish), Sanomatalon kellari, May 23, 2011. bib link
Avoin tieto ja World Wide Web tietoyhteiskunnan palveluksessa. (in Finnish), Aalto-university, TUAS House, Otaniementie 17, Hall TU2, April 5, 2011. bib html
HS Open #1: vaalikone ja TEKES-rahoituspäätökset. (in Finnish), Sanomatalon kellari, March 14, 2011. bib link

2010

Yhdistetty avoin tieto Suomessa - Linked Data in Finland. (in Finnish), Aalto-university, TUAS House, Otaniementie 17, Hall AS2, March 26, 2010. bib html
Yhteisöllinen semanttinen web 2.0 - Collaborative Semantic Web 2.0. (in Finnish), Aalto-university, main building, Otakaari 1, Hall E, January 15, 2010. bib html

2009

XML Finland 2009 - SeCon Semantic web -kokonaisuus. (in Finnish), Sokos Hotel Flamingo, Vantaa, Finland, January 19-20, 2009. bib html

2008

Kansallinen ontologiapalvelu ONKI - julkistustilaisuus. (in Finnish), Teknillinen korkeakoulu (TKK), September 12, 2008. bib html
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