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AMMO Ontology of Finnish Historical Occupations

AMMO ontology provides a harmonized view of Finnish historical occupations from early 20th century. It is based on manually harmonizing 4564 distinct occupational labels from 3 different source datasets. The source datasets are WW1 War Victims, WW2 Death Records, and WW2 Prisoners of War. AMMO occupations are linked to international HISCO classification, providing social stratification information through HISCLASS and HISCAM, as well as to Finnish Classification of Occupations. AMMO is modeled using SKOS. The ontology structure is provided through the hierarchies of HISCO and Classification of Occupations.

AMMO can be queried with SPARQL from the endpoint https://ldf.fi/ammo/sparql, or accessed locally as Turtle files or a dockerized SPARQL endpoint via GitHub.

The AMMO ontology is created as a part of the projects WarCasualtySampo 1914-1922 and WarSampo.

Sources of Occupational labels

WarSampo datasets of war casualties and prisoners of war.

WarCasualtySampo 1914-1922 dataset.

Sources of Contextual Information

Classification of Finnish Occupations 1980 contains parts of the occupation hierarchy, and the social classification, related to AMMO occupations, published in Classification of occupations 1980 (Ammattiluokitus 1980) by Statistics Finland (Tilastokeskus).

HISCO resource labels and hierarchy used with permission from the HISCO database. http://hdl.handle.net/10622/JA9B8O, IISH Dataverse, V1. Described in Van Leeuwen, M.H.D., Maas, I., Miles, A.: HISCO: Historical international standard classification of occupations. Leuven University Press (2002). See also the historyofwork.iisg.nl website and HISCO book (see: DOI:10.3200/HMTS.37.4.186-197).

HISCLASS classification used with permission, from Maas, I., & Van Leeuwen, M. H. (2005). Total and relative endogamy by social origin: A first international comparison of changes in marriage choices during the nineteenth century. International review of social History, 50(S13), 275-295. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020859005002142

HISCAM measures based on Lambert, P. S., Zijdeman, R. L., Van Leeuwen, M. H., Maas, I., & Prandy, K. (2013). The construction of HISCAM: A stratification scale based on social interactions for historical comparative research. Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 46(2), 77-89. https://doi.org/10.1080/01615440.2012.715569



Mikko Koho: Representing, Using, and Maintaining Military Historical Linked Data on the Semantic Web. Dissertation, Aalto University, School of Science, Department of Computer Science, May, 2020. bib pdf link


Mikko Koho, Lia Gasbarra, Jouni Tuominen, Heikki Rantala, Ilkka Jokipii and Eero Hyvönen: AMMO Ontology of Finnish Historical Occupations. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Open Data and Ontologies for Cultural Heritage (ODOCH 19), vol. 2375, pp. 91-96, CEUR Workshop Proceedings, Rome, Italy, June, 2019. Vol 2375. bib pdf link
This paper introduces AMMO Ontology of Finnish Historical Occupations. AMMO is based on thousands of occupation labels extracted from three Finnish military historical datasets of the early 20th century: the first consists of the ca. 40 000 war-related death records around the time of the Finnish Civil War (1914–1922); the second consists of the ca. 95 000 death records of Finnish soldiers in the Winter War and Continuation War (1939–1944); the third contains the ca. 4500 records of Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union during the WW2. Our goal from a Digital Humanities perspective is to use AMMO to study military history and these datasets based on the occupation and social status of the soldiers. AMMO will also be used as a component for faceted search and semantic recommendation in two semantic portals for Finnish military history. AMMO is aligned with the international historical occupation classification HISCO and with a modern Finnish occupational classification for international and national interoperability. The ontology is published as Linked Open Data in an ontology service.
Lia Gasbarra, Mikko Koho, Ilkka Jokipii, Heikki Rantala and Eero Hyvönen: An Ontology of Finnish Historical Occupations. The Semantic Web: ESWC 2019 Satellite Events (Hitzler, Pascal, Kirrane, Sabrina, Hartig, Olaf, de Boer, Victor, Vidal, Maria-Esther, Maleshkova, Maria, Schlobach, Stefan, Hammar, Karl, Lasierra, Nelia, Stadtmüller, Steffen, Hose, Katja and Verborgh, Ruben (eds.)), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 64-68, Springer, Cham, Portoroz, Slovenia, June, 2019. bib pdf link
Historical datasets often impose the need to study groups of people based on occupation or social status. This paper presents first results in creating an ontology of historical Finnish occupations, AMMO, that enables selection of groups of people based on their occupation, occupational groups, or socioeconomic class. AMMO is linked to the international historical occupation classification HISCO and to a modern Finnish occupational classification for interoperability. AMMO will be used as a component in two semantic portals for Finnish war history.
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